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The Stacks 2.0 Testnet: Testbed for a user owned internet

Today, the first phase of the Stacks 2.0 public testnet is officially online. To get started right away, visit

Realizing a truly user owned internet requires we change some fundamental forces at work on the current internet. The gravity working against us is made up of advertising-based business models, network effects of large technology companies, and a user base unaware that a better internet is possible.

We believe that a user owned internet will emerge on top of blockchains. More specifically, Web 3 will introduce true internet ownership anchored to the most secure blockchain: Bitcoin. Stacks 2.0 represents the design by which Web 3 can emerge and scale.

Bitcoin began giving us some of the tools to build a user owned internet over 10 years ago. With a transparent peer to peer network that doesn’t rely on trusted parties, Bitcoin finally gave us a robust and reliable way to own a digital asset. To this day, Bitcoin remains the most valuable and most secure decentralized network.

The properties of Bitcoin that enable this reliable form of digital ownership make it the perfect foundation for Web 3.0. With Bitcoin as an anchor, we will see inalienable internet property rights made standard in every part of your life on the internet.

In human civilization, whenever you have introduced property rights, the living standards for those people and societies have gone up, because, as soon as you introduce property rights, people start to self-organize.” – Forbes Interview

Stacks 2.0 will be the biggest single leap the Blockstack network has made toward this goal to date. It will enable developers to write expressive smart contracts and experiment with new business models, all anchored in the security and durability of Bitcoin. Stacks 2.0 interconnects the Stacks and Bitcoin cryptocurrencies as well; STX miners forward BTC to participate in mining and STX holders can earn Bitcoin by participating in consensus.

The Stacks 2.0 testnet gives testers their first opportunity to take Bitcoin’s model of ownership out of its silo and into their own projects. This is made possible by Proof of Transfer which takes Proof of Work beyond Bitcoin and makes it reusable to bootstrap new blockchains, provide early incentives, and eventually create independent app chains, all with Bitcoin’s security to back them. A more basic version of PoX is used in the initial stages of the testnet.

Stacks 2.0 enables the Clarity smart contract language which brings predictability and precision to smart contracts. In addition to Clarity, developer libraries in the Blockstack ecosystem for login and storage give developers the full toolset needed to build powerful Web 3.0 applications that empower users as the owners of the internet.

Over the coming weeks, various pieces of this stack will be added to the testnet in phases and more functionality will be incrementally introduced (see testnet phases). Later this summer, the community anticipates a mainnet launch in which independent miners will initiate the full upgrade to Stacks 2.0.

Testnet details can be found at

Overall goals for this testnet are as follows:

  1. Quality: Testnets are a “staging” environment for the eventual mainnet and can help surface critical bugs, missing features, and rough edges. We need your help in running and experimenting with the testnet code, so we can have a high-quality mainnet launch.
  2. Community: Testnets can serve to activate latent interest in the network, resulting in community growth and broader exposure among developers.

Get Started

Stacks 2.0 is our master blockchain design; the blockchain we wished existed when we were starting off. We’re excited to share this work with developers and look forward to improving it with your help!

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Important disclaimer

Blockstack PBC is not registered, licensed, or supervised as a broker dealer or investment adviser by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), or any other financial regulatory authority or licensed to provide any financial advice or services.

Forward-looking statements

This communication contains forward-looking statements that are based on our beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to us. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the following words: “will,” “expect,” “would,” “intend,” “believe,” or other comparable terminology. These statements involve risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and other factors that may cause actual results or performance to be materially different. We cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements will prove to be accurate. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date hereof. We disclaim any obligation to update these forward-looking statements.

Muneeb Ali

Muneeb Ali

Dr. Muneeb Ali is the founder of Stacks, a decentralized network that brings apps and smart contracts to Bitcoin. He serves as the CEO of Hiro PBC, a Public Benefit Corp that builds developer tools for the Stacks blockchain. He has raised $75 million USD in funding from investors like Union Square Ventures, Y Combinator, Lux Capital, Winklevoss Capital, and others. Hiro (formerly Blockstack PBC) was featured in the CNBC's list of 100 promising startups to watch. Muneeb received his Ph.D. and Masters in Computer Science from Princeton University. His Ph.D. thesis was nominated for the ACM SIGCOMM dissertation award by Princeton University. Muneeb gives guest lectures on cloud computing at Princeton and his research publications have over 1,300 citations. He is one of the main characters in George Gilder's book Life After Google and was a technical advisor to the HBO show Silicon Valley.